Degree Date



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




The present study examines data on outcomes from two federally funded programs for overseas critical language learning by American students. The subjects (N = 452) comprise young-adult participants in the Russian Overseas Flagship (N = 126) from AY 2004-05 to 2014-15 and late-adolescent participants in the summer and year programs of the National Security Language Initiative for Youth (NSLI-Y) from 2013-2015 and from AY 2011-2012 to 2014-15, respectively. NSLI-Y participants include students in the Arabic academic year program (N = 47), the Chinese academic year program (N = 78), the Russian academic year program (N = 57), and the eight-week Russian summer program (N = 144). Variables affecting gains are considered using pre-program and post-program reading, listening, and OPI values. Questions of relative language difficulty among Arabic, Chinese, and Russian; gender-based effects within specific language programs; and cross-modal interactions for participants of the Russian programs are addressed.