Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Title

Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society Conference


Final Published Version

Publication Date



In this paper we present a developmental approach to- ward creating intelligent systems. Although embracing an emergent paradigm, we also propose an architecture such that symbols have their proper place. To explore this methodology, we are developing our system on real robots. Robotic approaches usually invoke the so-called “symbol grounding problem” (Harnad 1990). However, our developmental approach bypasses the problem by generating the symbols. Thus, in a sense, the symbols are inherently grounded to the physical objects they des- ignate. We argue that a general theory of intelligence that takes a top-down perspective will be inherently in- complete.